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The Supreme Good imparts to the intellect the power to perceive, and gives intelligibility to the intelligible. God, the essential and supreme Good, can impart nothing that is not good.
This view leads to the inference that the origin of evil lies beyond the control of God.
The theory leans, therefore, to dualism, and its influence may be traced through the early Gnostic and Manichaean heresies, and, in a minor degree, in the doctrines of the Priscillanists and Albigenses.
Aristotle Starting from the Platonic definition, good is that which all desire, Aristotle, rejecting the Platonic doctrine of a transcendent world of ideas, holds that the good and being are identical; good is not something added to being, it is being.
We call a tool or instrument good, if it serves the purpose for which it is intended.
The objective idea is not indwelling in the essences of those things which fall within the scope of our corresponding universal concept, but the thing borrows or derives something from the idea.
While the being or existence proper to the world of things is imperfect, unstable, essentially transitory, and therefore not truly deserving of the name of being, whcih implies permanence, ideas on the contrary are incorruptible, unchangeable, and truly existence.
" In exposing the reply to this question we shall come across the moral good, and the ethical aspect of the problem, which shall be treated in the second place.
In Greek philosophy no topic receives more attention than the nature of the good.