Dating english glass

In ancient China, though, glass-making seems to have had a late start compared to ceramics and metal work.From across the former Roman Empire archaeologists have recovered glass objects that were used in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.Core-formed vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the fore with experimentation and technological advancements.During the Hellenistic period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares.A growth of the use of glass products occurred throughout the Roman world. With the discovery of clear glass (through the introduction of manganese dioxide), by glass blowers in Alexandria circa 100 AD, the Romans began to use glass for architectural purposes.Cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical qualities, began to appear in the most important buildings in Rome and the most luxurious villas of Herculaneum and Pompeii.Naturally occurring glass, especially the volcanic glass obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded.But in general, archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or ancient Egypt.

Georgius Agricola, in De re metallica, reported a traditional serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type: "The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place, the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to prop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucent liquid, and thus was the origin of glass." This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production, however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of glass within the Roman Empire due to its high purity levels.However, the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities, dating from the 3rd century BC, has been uncovered from the archaeological site in Takshashila, Pakistan, with bangles, beads, small vessels, and tiles discovered in quantity.However, the earliest archaeological evidence for glass manufacture in China comes from the late Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC to 221 BC).Glass workers in other areas therefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingots such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of modern Turkey.An early 18th-century goblet with coats of arms in the District Museum in Tarnów is one of the highest (54.3 cm, 21.4 in) preserved examples of artistry of less known Lubaczów glass manufacturing factory.

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